Allgemein

Which Is The First Of The Internationally Binding Agreements On Human Rights

The traditional categorization of three generations of human rights, used in the national and international discourse on human rights, traces the chronological evolution of human rights as an echo of the cry of the French revolution: freedom (freedom, „civil and political“ or „right of the first generation“), Eg (equality, „socio-economic“ or „right of the second generation“) and Fraternity (solidarity, „collective“ or „right of the third generation“). In the 18th and 19th centuries, the struggle for rights focused on the liberation of authoritarian oppression and the rights corresponding to freedom of expression, association and religion, as well as the right to vote. With the changing vision of the role of the state in an industrialized world and in a context of growing inequality, the importance of socio-economic rights has been clearly expressed. In the face of increasing globalization and increasing awareness of overlapping global concerns, particularly due to extreme poverty in some parts of the world, third-generation rights, such as the right to a healthy environment, self-determination and development, have been introduced. After the First World War, timid attempts were made to establish a human rights system within the League of Nations. For example, a minority commission has been established to hear minority complaints and a mandate commission has been established to deal with individual petitions of people living in mandate territories. However, these attempts were not successful and ended abruptly when the Second World War broke out. It took the trauma of this war, and in particular Hitler`s racist atrocities in the name of Nazism, for the international consensus, in the form of the United Nations, to be a bulwark against war and peacekeeping. The Council also promotes the European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages and the European Social Charter. [26] Membership is open to all European states that aspire to European integration, accept the principle of the rule of law and are capable and willing to guarantee democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms. [27] In 2014, a popular victory was celebrated within the UN Human Rights Council: the adoption of Resolution 26/9, which established a new Intergovernmental Working Group (IGWG) to develop a legally binding international instrument to regulate transnational corporations (TNCs) and other human rights enterprises.

Regional levelSince World War II, three regional human rights regimes — norms and institutions accepted as binding by states — have been established. Each of these systems operates under the aegis of an intergovernmental organization or an international political body. In the case of the European system — the best of three — it is the Council of Europe, founded in 1949 by ten Western European countries to promote human rights and the rule of law in Europe after the Second World War, preventing the regression of totalitarianism and serving as a bulwark against communism. The Organization of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 to promote peace, security and development in the region. In Africa, a human rights system was established under the aegis of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), founded in 1963 and transformed into the African Union (AU) in 2002. To achieve these goals, the Commission is responsible for „gathering documents, conducting studies and research on African human and peoples` rights issues, organising seminars, symposia and conferences, disseminating information, promoting national and local institutions dealing with human and peoples` rights and, in this case, giving their opinion or making recommendations to governments.“ [13] [14] If a contract does not contain provisions for other agreements or measures, only the text of the treaty is legally binding.